API reference

class solrq.Proximity(raw, distance, safe=False)

Bases: solrq.Value

Wrapper around proximity value searches.

  • raw (str) – string of words for proximity search.
  • distance (int) – distance between words.


>>> Proximity('foo bar', 4)
<Proximity: "foo\ bar"~4>
>>> Proximity('foo bar', 4, True)
<Proximity: "foo bar"~4>


Proximity will in fact accept any type as a raw value that has __str__ method defined so it is developer’s responsibility to make sure that raw has a reasonable value.

class solrq.Q(children=None, op=<bound method type.and_ of <class 'solrq.QOperator'>>, **kwargs)

Bases: object

Class for handling Solr queries in a semantic way.

  • children (iterable) – iterable of children Q objects. Note: can’t be used with kwargs.
  • op (callable) – operator to join query parts.
  • kwargs (dict) – list of query parts. Note: can’t be used with children.


>>> Q(foo="bar")
<Q: foo:bar>
>>> str(Q(foo="bar"))
>>> Q(text="Skyrim")
<Q: text:Skyrim>
>>> Q(language="EN", text="Skyrim") 
<Q: ...>
>>> ~(Q(language="EN", text="cat") | Q(language="PL", text="dog"))
<Q: !((... AND ...) OR (... AND ...))>


it is possible to specify query params that are not valid python argument names using dictionary unpacking e.g.:

>>> Q(**{"*_t": "text_to_search"})
<Q: *_t:text_to_search>

Compile Q object into query string.

Parameters:extra_parenthesis (bool) – add extra parenthesis to children query.
Returns:compiled query string.
Return type:str


>>> (Q(type="animal") & Q(name="cat")).compile()
'type:animal AND name:cat'
>>> (Q(type="animal") & Q(name="cat")).compile(True)
'(type:animal AND name:cat)'
class solrq.QOperator

Bases: object

Simply a namespace for handling Q object operator routines.

classmethod and_(qs_list)

Perform ‘and’ operator routine.

Parameters:qs_list (iterable) – iterable of “compiled” query strings.
Returns:query strings joined with Solr AND operator as single string.
Return type:str
classmethod boost(qs_list, factor)

Perform ‘boost’ operator routine.

  • qs_list (iterable) – single element list with compiled query string
  • factor (float or int) – boost factor

compiled query string followed with ‘~’ and boost factor

Return type:



this operator routine is not intended to be directly used as Q object argument but rather as a component for actual operator e.g:

>>> from functools import partial
>>> Q(children=[Q(a='b')], op=partial(QOperator.boost, factor=2))
<Q: a:b^2>
classmethod not_(qs_list)

Perform ‘not’ operator routine.

Parameters:qs_list (iterable) – single item iterable of “compiled” query strings.
string with containing Solr ! operator followed by query.
Return type:str


qs_list must be a list despite ‘not’ operator accepts only single query string here, to avoid more complexity in Q objects initialization.

classmethod or_(qs_list)

Perform ‘or’ operator routine.

Parameters:qs_list (iterable) – iterable of “compiled” query strings.
Returns:query strings joined with Solr OR operator as single string.
Return type:str
class solrq.Range(from_, to, safe=None, boundaries='inclusive')

Bases: solrq.Value

Wrapper around range values.

Wraps two values with Solr’s [<from> TO <to>] syntax (defaults to inclusive boundaries) with respect to restricted character escaping.

Wraps two values with Solr’s [<from> TO <to>] (defaults to inclusive boundaries) syntax with respect to restricted character escaping.
  • from (object) – start of range, same as parameter raw in Value.
  • to (object) – end of range, same as parameter raw in Value.
  • boundaries (str) –

    type of boundaries for the range. Defaults to 'inclusive'. Allowed values are:

    • inclusive, ii, or []: translates to
      [<from> TO <to>]
    • exclusive, ee, or {}: translates to
      {<from> TO <to>}
    • ei, or {]: translates to {<from> TO <to>]
    • ie, or [}: translates to [<from> TO <to>}


Simpliest range that matches all documents with some field set:

>>> Range('*', '*', safe=True)
<Range: [* TO *]>

Note that there are shortucts already provided:

>>> Range(ANY, ANY)
<Range: [* TO *]>
>>> SET
<Range: [* TO *]>

Other data types:

>>> Range(0, 20)
<Range: [0 TO 20]>
>>> Range(timedelta(days=2), timedelta())

To use exclusive or mixed boundaries use boundaries argument:

>>> Range(0, 20, boundaries='exclusive')
<Range: {0 TO 20}>
>>> Range(0, 20, boundaries='ei')
<Range: {0 TO 20]>
>>> Range(0, 20, boundaries='[}')
<Range: [0 TO 20}>


We could treat any iterables always as ranges when initializing Q objects but “explicit is better than implicit” and also this would require to handle value representation there and we don’t want to do that.

BOUNDARY_BRACKETS = {'exclusive': '{}', 'ei': '{]', 'inclusive': '[]', 'ee': '{}', '{]': '{]', '[]': '[]', 'ii': '[]', '[}': '[}', '{}': '{}', 'ie': '[}'}
class solrq.Value(raw, safe=False)

Bases: object

Wrapper around query values.

It allows easy handling of character escaping and further query value translations.

By default it escapes all restricted characters so query can’t be easily broken with unsafe strings. Also it recognizes timedelta and datetime objects so they can be represented in format that Solr can recognize (useful with ranges, see: Range)

  • raw (object) – raw value object. Must be string, datetime, timedelta or have __str__ method defined.
  • safe (bool) – set to True to turn off character escaping.


In most cases you will pass string:

>>> Value("foo bar")
<Value: foo\ bar>

But it can be anything that has __str__ method:

>>> Value(1)
<Value: 1>
>>> Value(timedelta(days=1))
>>> Value(Value("foo"))
<Value: foo>

To get final query string just make it str:

>>> str(Value("foo bar"))
'foo\\ bar'

Note that raw strings are not safe by default:

>>> Value('foo [] bar')
<Value: foo\ \[\]\ bar>
>>> Value("foo [] bar", safe=True)
<Value: foo [] bar>
ESCAPE_RE = <_sre.SRE_Pattern object>